Articles About Wallpaper
Decorative Methods Used at Kathrineberg
by Robert M. Kelly
The plantation house built halfway up a mountain on the island of St. Thomas for Hans Henrik Berg in 1830 was carefully designed to maintain cool conditions. 35 window and door openings in the five main rooms on the first storey, most of them 6 feet wide by 8 feet high, provided excellent cross-draft ventilation. A breezeway passage beneath the hall continues to capture and recycle the nearly constant breezes from the bay to the South and the plateau to the East.
During their investigations Martin Weaver and Caroline Guay found that most of the interior walls were finished with lime plaster applied directly to masonry surfaces or lath. The framing was formed with 2 1/2" x 3/4" battens or grounds at all extremities to facilitate the securing of stretched textiles that in turn supported papered and distempered finishes in each room.
Intermediate vertical battens were placed every three or four feet, and an intermediate horizontal batten was placed throughout at about 70" above the floor, so that the stripped walls revealed a variety of rectangular shapes, each consisting of plaster framed by wooden battens. Where there were missing or severely damaged battens, it was specified that they would be replaced with only CCA pressure-treated pitch pine (Pinus rigida), with missing plaster to be replaced with Polyfilla, a methylcellulose filling material.
The investigators were able to identify first period colours for each room by locating tiny scraps of the original distempered paper beneath subsequent decorations. The scraps of paper were backed by original fabric which was still clinging to the battens. The fabric varies, but at least one type resembles that used for mattress ticking; it is a fairly rough cotton or linen weave with a thin black stripe repeating every 10 millimeters.
The original decorating method had the immense advantage of permitting the walls to "breathe" so that excess water vapor, whether admitted through the tropical climate or the occasional roof leak, could be carried off right through the wall decoration. It is an ingenious concept, but one that had become thwarted by successive redecorations.
Many of the openings had become blocked and altered. The interior finishes were sealed by impervious paints, and in some cases were completely entombed in modern sheetrock; these conditions were a direct cause of the recent problems with fungal organisms and bacteria. The conclusion of the investigation was that the house should be restored to its original floor plan, and that the original batten and canvas techniques and materials should be renewed, because they and only they could insure proper ventilation for the walls.
The batten and canvas techniques used at Kathrineberg are an adaptation of methods that were well established in France, England and the United States before 1830. After 1830 these methods were adopted for simple frame structures in Australia and became common in the settlement of the southwest United States in the late 19th and early 20th century. The aptness of the technique for the St. Thomas environment is obvious. Less clear is why there should be so many battens, since the standard method was to tack only at the extremities.
Three theories for the excess battens are: 1) to facilitate the placement of pictures, 2) because the builders wanted to be sure of enough support for the textiles, or, in the case of the current Reception Room, 3) to allow for the installation of symmetrical "panel" decorations within the overall scheme (this formal room has an "inner" series of battens about 4 inches inside the normal ones on each side of the central doors to hall and exterior).
While the decorating methods used at Kathrineberg were common in the period, this group of techniques is only poorly understood today. The fact that a house was built as late as 1830 with these specific methods in mind, and that that house retains so much original building fabric, is unprecedented, at least in the experience of this writer.
The methods were extremely versatile, and the plan of work in any particular case depended on the need. Battens could be part of the construction of the room, or they might be applied later. Fabric could be hung as a lining for paper, or for another fabric. Paper could be coloured on the wall with or without an underlayment.
Although paper could be and often was hung on plank walls, it would usually split after the first seasonal change due to expansion and contraction, and thus a fabric underlayment that would create a "false wall" became common in the better installations. The fabric provided a strong yet flexible support for the paper throughout changing climatic conditions.
The other major technical consideration was "the damp". As A. J. Downing wrote in 1850, "In some countries - England, for example - papered walls are objectionable, on account of their retaining dampness in a moist climate." The problem of how to hang costly paper hangings on damp walls was one that the nascent paperhangings industry simply had to overcome. Battens and canvas are recommended highly by Arrowsmith, second only to constructing a new lath and plaster wall in front of the damp wall.
It was in England that the idea of obtaining single sheets of cartridge paper "in the white" and then colouring them on the wall gained widespread acceptance as a fine finish, not least because it was a neat way to avoid the wallpaper tax on printed goods. Indeed, the canvass and batten method seems to have been characteristically English.
There is at least one newspaper ad from an American paperhanger/paperstainer referring to the "...English method..." of putting up paper and while this alone is not proof that he was using battens and canvas, the next phrase may be significant: "...will insure never to come loose from the walls".
The single sheets were called "elephant" after the elephant watermark often found on sheets intended for early paper hangings. In 1800, Lady Heathcote was billed for the following work in her drawing room at Brook Street in London: "- 7 quire of Stamped Elephant paper: £1 5 0. - time hanging compleat for painting: £1 5 0". Her job sounds straightforward but the full technique is spelled out in a private notebook of Thomas Jefferson from 1769. He wrote:
"Send for cartridge paper to color on for room. It comes in quires each sheet 18 I sq. costs 1/ a quire. 25 quire will give a dble coat to my dining room, so send for 3 reams. Verditer Blue. Prussian blue. Spanish white. Cuttins of white leather to make a size to prevent its rubbing off...rolls to hang paper on, yard wide, 10d sterlg. p. yd.
The "yard wide" he refers to was the canvas, and the stitching together of it was a critical step in the process. At Harewood in 1772, William Reid, an outworker from the Chippendale company, spent time on April 16 "Takeing dimensions of Drawing rooms....", then a few days later "Cutting out Canvass for the two drawing room", then in the period April 27-29 he spent 24 hr. "Prepareing Canvass for the 2 Drawing Rooms", before the actual work of "Canvass & papering the Drawing rooms (36 hr.)" in July. It is noteworthy that the "Prepareing", which must have been the stitching, took so long.
As the scale of the Harewood commission would suggest, climate was not always the driving force behind the use of battens and canvas; an equally compelling reason was fashion. Panelled walls were common in early 18th century Europe and when panelling became not quite so fashionable, lining became necessary prior to applying another decorative finish. Even without the battens, a canvas could be stitched together and installed in a room to support paper or another fabric, for although every room did not have plaster, they almost invariably had wood framing.
Another major reason for the growth of the technique was the wholesale renovation within houses, for example, moving staircases or creating smaller rooms out of larger. A good and well-documented example are several rooms in Temple Newsam in York, where canvas was installed after renovations in order to hang paper on boarded, or partially boarded, walls.
Thus there was plenty of precedent for the techniques that were used so comprehensively at Kathrineberg. The reasons for the methods in St. Thomas are more technical and expedient than decorative, but that just fits in all the more with life on a remote tropical island.
To carry out the work a heavy-weight 100% cotton muslin in a 140" width was cut to length and spread out over each wall, top to bottom and corner to corner. Staple guns powered by an electric air compressor were used to drive stainless steel staples into the top center batten of each wall. The material was pulled down and tacked, then aligned using the four mid-points of the tops and sides of the room as references, and stapled in place while pulling tightly and working from the mid-points to the corners. Relief cuts were made at window bays and the material wrapped around the window bay corners and tacked into the center of the framing members alongside the windows, then finished by tacking to the extremities.
Pure methyl cellulose and a premium wheat starch were mixed separately, then blended 50/50 and fortified with o-PP, a fungicide. This paste was applied to the stapled fabric with bristle brush just before the pasted sheets of paper were installed for a good wet-to-wet union.
The paper chosen was a continuous machine-made rag paper, neutral in pH and about 150 gsm in weight, with deep texture that simulated early 19th century "cartridge" paper. The 21" wide strips were overlapped about 3/4 inch.
After an overnight dry, the paper was sized with rabbitskin glue fortified with o-PP. The paint used was a mixture of clay, water, pigments, and chalk. The Munsell colour system was used to match the colours exactly to those found in the investigations. The binder (glue size) was heated slowly in a double-boiler and mixed into the paint just prior to painting the walls with natural bristle brushes.
Following the painting a half-round painted wood trim 1/2" wide and 3/8" deep was applied to cover all "tacked" areas, including a double course in the corners, following early 19th century European conventions. The finish trim used was the exact size and type as that found in several locations in the building, notably in the Dining Room. The restoration differs only in that while the trim found in the Dining Room was gilded in a silver tone and varnished to imitate gold, it was not possible to judge whether this was the original finish. The colours of the finish trim for each room were therefore matched to the existing traces of colour that were left on the other portions of the woodwork, which were almost invariably a light steel blue. The wooden plank ceilings extant from the original 1830 construction were also originally painted a light steel blue, and these were repainted so in the restoration.
Appendix A: Extracts from Sources Cited
Rosoman, T., "London Wallpapers: Their Manufacture and Use, 1690-1840", London, English Heritage, 1992.
pg. 11, "During the first quarter of the 19th century there swept through London a fashion for upgrading older, early eighteenth-century houses. Dado rails were ripped off and canvas was spread from cornice to skirting boards. This method of using a textile backing led to the widespread habit of adding layer upon layer of new paper as rooms were redecorated, rather than stripping down and starting anew....as more layers were added, the paper became more taut and stretched, making it look as though it had been papered onto a modern building, rather than an old-fashioned panelled room."
Michie, A., "Upholstery in All Its Branches: Charleston, 1725-1820", in the Journal of Early Southern Decorative Arts, Winston-Salem, NC, Nov. 1985, Vol. XI, No. 2.
pg. 67 "The South Carolina climate may have necessitated particular methods of paperhanging; at least John Blott felt this to be so. After three years' trial, he felt that he had learned the best method of hanging, and he warranted his paper to stay up in a neat and durable manner. The method generally practiced, he felt, resulted in spoiled paper". (Blott's ad is in the South Carolina Gazette, July 25, 1776).
Arrowsmith, James, "The Paper-Hanger's and Upholsterer's Guide", London, T.Dean and Son, 1851.
pg. 29-32, "The kind of battens I have used for apartments about to be canvassed were three inches in width, and five-eighths of an inch in thickness: deal-wood is the most proper for the purpose. The battens must be placed close to the top, bottom, doors, windows, and fireplace, and double to form a right angle at each of the corners, unless the shape of the apartment requires a deviation."
"All these ought to have plugs near their extremities; intermediate battens, about two feet apart, are required to support the canvas against pressure; but as there ought to be no nailing or stress against them, slighter plugging may suffice. (In some cases, taking off the plinths of the apartment may be objectionable; then the plaster must be cut away to receive the battens, only leaving a small projection before the face of the wall, to prevent the canvas coming in contact with it.)
To prepare for canvassing, observe, that as there must be no nailing upon the intermediate battens, the canvas must be cut and joined by back-stitching in sizes, that each may be sufficient to cover a side, an end, or such part as has to be papered....I prefer commencing with nailing at the top in the centre of any of the compartments, and drawing the canvas each way. By this means the threads of it are kept warp and woof at right angles.......when the top of the canvas is nailed, commence drawing it down also exactly in the centre as at the top, and from it strain it each way to the ends. By doing so firmly the work will be much tighter; the sides may be done in like manner from the centre....the kind of canvas I have found the best for the purpose is that known as strainering canvas, used by upholsterers as their first stuffing canvas, and with as little sizing as possible in its manufacture."
Cornforth, J., and Fowler, J., "English Decoration of the 18th Century", London, second edition, Barrie & Jenkins, 1978.
pg. 122, "The use of hangings as a form of decoration as well as insulation dates back to medieval times, but fixed hangings only seem to have been introduced after the Restoration. In brick and stone houses the structure of the internal walls as well as the external was often left rough, and a wooden framework was constructed inside it, to form grounds for nailing, or sometimes it was plastered level with the face of the grounds. Sometimes a room to be hung with stretched material or tapestry, or later wallpaper, might be left with just the wooden framework......"
pg. 123, "The method of fixing these hangings, whatever the fabric, was usually the same. First a scrim or canvas was stretched over each flank of wall and was cut out and tacked to the grounds of the framework round all openings such as doorcases, windows and chimneypieces. Having lined the room in this way, the scrim was often covered with a lining paper, and then the final covering of silk, wool or cotton was put on.....Early wallpapers, which were after all called paper hangings, were treated in a similar way to fabric..."
pg. 124, "A rather later set of instructions for hanging Chinese paper were sent to the Early of Hopetoun by James Cullen in the 1750s or 60s: 'If the Indian paper is to be put up in a Room that is wainscoted it must have a linnen and the linnen must be covered with a smooth whited brown paper to prevent it's cracking and then put on the Indian paper.... (from an article by Anthony Coleridge in Furniture History' Hanging Chinese Wallpaper", 1966, pg. 65).
"Where it was the intention to upholster the walls with fabric or hang them with paper mounted on linen or scrim, the wooden grounds holding the scrim and tacks for the final covering needed to be covered, and this gave rise in the 1730s to the use of fillets or braids.....it was usual to place them above the dado rail and below the architrave moulding of the entablature, with often a double line in the vertical angles of the room; however they were seldom used on the external angle of a chimney breast as the material did not require tacking there."
On pg. 179 they quote from an unpublished 1767 letter from Rowland Belasis to Lord Fauconberg, who was then involved in remodelling Newburgh Priory : "While I was at Mr. Southcotes at Woburn Farm, I saw a Room painted Blue, as the man seem'd to understand his Business I took notice of his methods with a design to give you what information I could, the method is as follows he first put up Coarse lining and pasted upon it the common Light Brown paper, after that the same sort of paper that was put up in your Drawing Room, the room was painted three times over, & everytime as much paint was made as would paint the room once, & I was told that they put no more size into the paint than was necessary to fix the Blue & hinder it from rubbing off with the hand. This method succeeded so well that it is all one colour, & looks extremely well..."
On pg. 203, they say that in 1772 Elwick, a York upholsterer, wrote to John Grimston, at Kilnwick, Yorkshire, that "Our people set off yesterday to York. There will be business sufficient for them to go on with while you will be engaged, in putting up the plane paper in the Drawing Room, Library and Yellow bedchamber preparing Colour etc.....that is they was to put on the Paper as this is always put up & colour'd after."
And "...I am sure it is much for the advantage of the wall to have a paper upon it to do it in oil or size which you will, & as to the Drawing Room I do assure you, you can't have so fine a colour as you may have in the way do those plane colours, Indeed nothing to Compare with it, & if you chouse to do your library in oil you will see the Difference..."
Elwick's letter appears to be confirmed by a bill of 1822 from Morant which lists "8 1/2 pieces of fine stampt Elephant hung pommiced and coloured in distemper fine blue."
(the Elwick quotes are from "Leaves From a Family Tree", pg. 72, by Edward Ingram: the Morant bill is from "Mrs. Delaney", Series I, Vol. III, pg. 477.)
Williamsburg Research Files (Botetourt and Jefferson):
In Inventory of the Personal Estate of his Excellency Lord Botetourt began to be taken the 24th of Octor 1770
...In a Closet....Oznabrigs intended to paste the paper on in the Supper Room.
(from Botetourt Papers, Virginia State Library)
"Send for cartridge paper to color on for room. It comes in quires each sheet 18 I. sq. costs 1/ a quire. 25 quire will give a dble coat to my dining room, so send for 3 reams. Verditer Blue. Prussian blue. Spanish white. Cuttins of white leather to make a size to prevent its rubbing off...Rolls to hang paper on, yard wide, 10d sterlg. p. yd."
(from unpublished record books of Thomas Jefferson, 1769, referred to in Colonial Williamsburg Research Library).
Dagnall, H., "The Tax on Wallpaper, 1712-1836", self-published, Edgware, Middlesex, 1990.
pg. 5, "Wallpaper was sometimes decorated at places other than the stainer's registered place of work (e.g. it might be painted or stained in the house in which it was to be hung - occasionally after it had been hung on the wall). In this case the Excise Officer of that district had to be informed so that he could charge the stainer with the Duty. An Instruction issued to Officers in 1764 states that 'Supervisors and Officers must use every likely and legal means to discover where rooms have been hung with plain Paper, and afterwards Stained or Painted'."
(the following is from Mr. Dagnall's summary of late 18th and early 19th century regulations, pg. 19)
Procedure for staining: 13) It is generally the custom for traders to paste or join the sheets of paper together in order to make each piece for printing about twelve yards in length; but it sometimes happens that they require single sheets to be stamped and charged in the white, that is, before being printed, for the purpose of hanging rooms and to be subsequently painted.
McClelland, N., "Historic Wall-Papers", Philadelphia and N.Y., J.B. Lippencott, 1924.
pg. 60, "We learn from an advertisement printed by Didier Aubert in 1755 [in Paris] the exact method used in putting tontisses (flock wallpapers) on the wall. All that was needed was a piece of stout linen, which might already have been used for some other purpose, a frame of four sticks, called a chassis, that fitted the space where the paper was to be placed, and some ordinary brown paper. The chassis was first nailed to the wall and the linen stretched over it. On this the brown paper was pasted, and when this was dry the tontisse was applied."
Furniture History, Vol. IX, 1973, "Chippendale's Harewood Commission", pg. 21-2.
(from a record of work done or supervised in 1772 by William Reid, a Chippendale worker)
April 16 - Takeing dimensions of Drawing rooms & going to Leeds (12 hr.)
April 18 to 25 - Cutting out Canvass for the two drawing room makeing covers for the Library Table & stool, alterations in cushions for the hassocs........
April 27-29 - Prepareing Canvass for the 2 Drawing Rooms (24 hr.)
July 11 - Canvass & papering the Drawing rooms (36 hr.)
July 15 - at Do (36 hr.)
Murphy, P., "Historic Wallpapers in Australia: 1850-1920)", Castlemaine Art Gallery, Victoria, Austrialia, 1996.
pg. 10, "Many early houses in Australia were constructed of timber and wallpaper lent itself to being hung on to the linings of scrim, hessian and boards. This provided a reasonable internal finish, emulating the plastered brick and masonry houses of the more affluent".
Downing, A.J., "The Architecture of Country Houses", 1850. Reprint. New York: Dover, 1969.
pg. 369, "In some countries - England, for example - papered walls are objectionable, on account of their retaining dampness in a moist climate. But in the United States, there is no complaint of this kind".
Ads from American Newspapers
From an ad in the "Pennsylvania Packet", Philadelphia, Oct. 5, 1786.
"Paper Hangings, Put on in the neatest manner, by Thomas Hurly, at the usual moderate price of 1s 6, per piece on plain walls, or 3s. for pasting on paper and canvas, which he warrants to execute so as that no damp can long after affect his paper; he likewise makes bed and window curtains of every kind, stuffs chairs, sophas, and mattrasses on the shortest notice......"
A. R. Williams
From an ad in "The American Patriot", Baltimore, Md., Feb. 24, 1803.
"Baltimore Paper Hanging Manufactory, No. 33 South Charles Street - The Subscriber...........being provided with proper persons (together with himself) for hanging his paper, is enabled to execute orders with dispatch, whether in this city or country, on pleasing terms, as he is acquainted with the English method of puting up paper, will insure never to come loose from the walls - A.R. Williams".
Wells-Cole, A., "Historic Paper Hangings", Temple Newsam Country House Studies No. 1, Leeds, 1983.
Temple Newsam, Leeds
In 1796 renovations were carried out by William Johnson: "...in common with most of the other rooms remodelled then, the walls must always have been intended to receive paper for they had vertical battens nailed to them, with horizontal tongue and grooved boards rebated into the battens. This apparently costly construction must actually have been cheaper than a fine plaster surface. A stiff brown lining paper was then pasted direct to the boards and the diaper paper(# 7) hung on this. Subsequently the room was stripped, stretched with canvas and repapered with # 8...."
pg. 46, Lady Heathcote, bills for a house in Brook Street, London, from 1800:
back drawing room - 7 Quire of Stamped Elephant paper: £1 5 0 - time hanging compleat for painting: £1 5 0
The following extract from an early 20th century source is included as a matter of interest as it shows how American paperhangers adapted European methods in a later age:
Kelly, A.A., "The Expert Paperhanger", 1921, second edition, David McKay.
pg. 108-111, Little of this work (canvassing) is done in the north, but a great deal of it in the south and south-west. The following communication came from a Tennessee paper hanger. He says: "I always have the ceilings and side walls sewed together; that is to say, the ceiling in one piece, and the side walls to fit from a corner to an opening. I bring ceiling and sidewall along together, so that one tacking does for both, at the ceiling angle corners. I begin in one and bring it down to the bottom and fasten it with two or three tacks, so that it can't move. Then I put the other piece up and tack both pieces of canvas in the corner, with one row of tacks. Then I stretch to a casing and tack two inches apart. Then I stretch to the baseboards and tack close. Then I tack all over. As to the ceiling,...stretch one breadth at a time, tacking in the seam, then tack all through it with the tacks not over four inches apart".
A Texas paper hanger comments thus upon the foregoing communication: "We canvas walls quite different from the way our Tennessee friend does it. He tells us that we cannot canvas a ceiling of ordinary size and tack only on the seams. If he would come to our part of the country I could show him, better than I can write it, how we do it. We never think of sewing anything together; we simply start in the corner or at the casing on the right and work to the left, stretching from top to sides, then at the bottom, tacking on the edge only. Then tack the center the same way. With the ceiling I leave the corner open, then paste down and line with manila paper; if done this way it will not bag".
Another Texas workman tells us that: "In most parts of the South nine houses out of ten are canvased over sheathing of shiplap, flooring, or common boxing. The canvas is usually put on before the inside trim, and very often before the sash are fitted, or outside openings are closed. But this is a poor way to do this work, as the canvas usually becomes baggy or loose, no matter how well stretched when hung...we begin at the corners, then tack first along the top, then down the corner, tacking two or three inches apart, then stretch canvas across and tack every six or eight inches; then stretch and tack along the bottom every two or three inches; then cut off, then shower-tack six to eight inches apart, as high as you can reach from the floor. Lap the second strip about one-half inch, but get it plumb......The ceiling is done the same way, leaving corners and angles open[cut short of the opening]. Shower-tack ceiling and upper part of the wall. Having canvased the room, take heavy manila paper and paste it with heavy paste, and cut into strips of about three inches wide; soak in water, then line corners and angles with the strips. When these are dry you can go ahead with hanging the wall paper, and your corners and angles will be as square and true as a well plastered room....A good day's work is 150 yards, properly stretched and shower-tacked. But I have known men to hang as much as 300 yards in an eight-hour day, and do the work right, too."
pg. 112, "The trade name "canvas" is an arbitrary term used to denote a cotton material known as cheesecloth, and of which there are several grades by weight; while ordinary muslin also may be used, the lighter weight materials particularly. It is probably that what was known as Hessian cloth many years ago was cheesecloth, though I am not sure that is was. At any rate, in Australia the paper hangers use the word Hessian to designate what we call cheesecloth, and it is the same in Great Britain, I am told."
Appenndix B: The Hidden Door
The large open doorway between the current dining room and the main reception room was once so arranged that the whole central section of the wall hinged back as two leafs on pivots. The existence of the two leafs, nailed shut in 1918, was hidden by the fact that they were both decorated in exactly the same manner as the adjacent wall surfaces. The wallpapered and painted surfaces were flush and the existence of a joint where the leafs opened could only be detected by close inspection. When the leafs were closed they were secured at the bottom by a small brass bolt which shot into the floor. At the top they were secured by two small bolts which shot into keeps. The original lower bolt and all the pivot hinges are still in place.
During the investigation of the hidden doors copies of "The Times" of London dated 1851 were found underneath two layers of historic wallpaper; they were apparently used as lining during a major revovation. "The Times" of 1854 was used in similar fashion at Aston Hall.
1. McClelland, N., "Historic Wall-Papers", Philadelphia and N.Y., J.B. Lippencott, 1924, pg. 60.
Nouvel, O., "Wallpapers of France, 1800-1850ö, N.Y., Rizzoli, 1981, pg. 9.
2. Cornforth, J., and Fowler, J., "English Decoration of the 18th Century", London, second edition, Barie & Jenkins, 1978, pp. 122-24, 179, 203.
Rosoman, T., "London Wallpapers: Their Manufacture and Use, 1690-1840", London, English Heritage, 1992, pg. 11.
3. ad in the Pennsylvania Packet, Philadelphia, Oct. 5, 1786: "...Paper Hangings, Put on in the neatest manner, by Thomas Hurly, at the usual moderate price of 1s 6, per piece on plain walls, or 3s. for pasting on paper and canvas, which he warrants to execute so as that no damp can long after affect his paper....."
4. Murphy, P., "Historic Wallpapers in Australia: 1850-1920", Castlemaine Art Gallery, Victoria, Australia, 1996,pg. 10.
5. Kelly, A.A., "The Expert Paperhanger", second edition, David McKay, 1921, pp. 108-111.
6. Arrowsmith, J., "The Paper-Hanger's and Upholsterer's Guide", London, T. Dean and Son, 1850, pp. 29-32. Although written in 1850, the author mentions that he has had "50 years experience" and that his experience ".....extends to the latter end of the last century". His book is therefore a summation of decorating methods that could have influenced the 1830 Kathrineberg installation.
7. Downing, A.J., "The Architecture of Country Houses", 1850. Reprint. New York: Dover, 1969, pg. 369.
8. Arrowsmith, pg. 25.
9. Dagnall, H., "The Tax on Wallpaper, 1712-1836", self-published, Edgware, Middlesex, 1990, pg. 5, pg. 19.
10. ad in the "American Patriot", Baltimore, Md., February 24, 1803. See also John Blott's similar ad in the South Carolina Gazette, July 25, 1776, which is commented on in: Michie, A., "Upholstery in All Its Branches: Charleston, 1725-1820", in the Journal of Early Southern Decorative Arts, Winston-Salem, NC, Nov. 1985, Vol. XI, No. 2, pg. 67.
11. Wells-Cole, A., "Historic Paper Hangings", Temple Newsam Country House Studies No. 1, Leeds, 1983, pg. 46.
12. from unpublished record books of Thomas Jefferson, 1769, Colonial Williamsburg Research Library.
13. from the "Compleat Appraiser", fifth edition, London, 1793: "Linen-Furniture, commonly called 'Yard-Wide', is seldom more than 33 inches, or 2 feet 9 inches wide".
14. Furniture History, Vol. IX, 1973, "Chippendale's Harewood Commission", pp. 21-2.
15. Wells-Cole: see especially pp. 6, 13, 18.
16. Sources: compressor: Porter-Cable 2hp; staple guns: Rainco; stainless steel staples:Wynn & Graf, stainless steel nails: Swan Secure, canvas: Rosebrand Fabrics, paper: La Papeterie St-Armand, granular rabbitskin glue: N.Y. Central Art Supplies, distemper: Adelphi Paper Hangings, LLC.
17. in Aston Hall, Birmingham, pg. 39, (Wells-Cole) entry 52, a handsome vine leaf on blue ground was pasted over the mid-18th century sprig paper, no. 51, in King Charles's Room and its closet; "The Times", for various dates in November 1854, was used as a lining paper.
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